Benedictus de Spinoza Spinoza's philosophy encompasses nearly every area of philosophical discourse, including metaphysics, epistemology, political philosophy, ethics, philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. It earned Spinoza an enduring reputation as one of the most important and original thinkers of the seventeenth century.
Benedictus de Spinoza Ethics-Part One focuses on the ultimate ground of all being, i.e., God. God is not the God of classical theism. Instead, it is the only 'substance' in the universe and contains all other things in terms of its 'attributes' as 'modes'. Thus we do not have independent existence, but exist as modes of God.
Benedictus de Spinoza Ethics-Part 2 is based on the nature and origin of the mind. It explains the results, which must necessarily
follow from the essence of God which are able to lead us, as it were by
the hand, to the knowledge of the human mind and its highest blessedness.
Benedictus de Spinoza Ethics-Part Three concerns the nature of the emotions. In it, Spinoza distinguishes between actions and passions, the nature of things to 'endeavor' towards their self-preservation, and understands goodness and badness in terms of pleasure and pain. Desire, pleasure and pain are the primary emotions and all other emotions are combinations of them.
Benedictus de Spinoza Ethics-Part Four covers both the idea of human 'servitude' and the strength of the emotions. Spinoza focuses on the nature of the active life. We pursue the good and avoid the bad; virtue is the power to do the good, the power of reason to rule the emotions. Rational control is hard to achieve but it is possible. We are only free when our actions are determined by our reason alone.
Benedictus de Spinoza Ethics-Part Five covers the nature of the good life and true religion. The good life is acting on pure reason and coming to understand ourselves. To the extent that we understand ourselves, we understand God. The love of God derives from this understanding. We can achieve a kind of immortality, but one acts from a bad motive if one is good due to seeking eternal life.
Benedictus de Spinoza Thie is the 1st edition of of The treatise is a naural extention of Maimonides' M. Yorah and Guide for the Perplexed. Maimonides' views are extentions of Akiba, best presented in the Commentaries of Nachmonides. "Rights" come out of power, not any abstration such as men created equal. Spinoza's view is that of the adult, not the child.
Benedictus de Spinoza One of the most important parts of Spinoza's philosophy is that according to him God is visible in Nature, God and Nature are two names for the same reality. He was a rationalist and only believed in explanations based on reason. There are many interpretations of Spinoza's ideas about God: from atheist to pantheist. Spinoza also wrote about freedom, politics, true knowledge and more.
Benedictus de Spinoza This covers all parts of the treatise. This is essential reading for all who would understand the modern world.
It is pure genius. The treatise is a naural extention of Maimonides' M. Yorah and Guide for the Perplexed. Guide is on the internet translated from Judeo-Arabic. Maimonides' views are extentions of Akiba, best presented in the Commentaries of Nachmonides. However, one need not read any of this to see the stuff of Spinoza. "Rights" come out of power, not any abstration such as men created equal. Spinoza's view is that of the adult, not the child.
For those turned off by the logic of "Ethics" Spinoza's treatise is clear-cut.
Benedictus de Spinoza Written by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus or Theologico-Political Treatise was one of the most controversial texts of the early modern period. It was a preemptive defense of Spinoza's later work, Ethics, published posthumously in 1677, for which he anticipated harsh criticism.
Benedictus de Spinoza De Ethica vormt het hoofdwerk van Spinoza (1632-1677); zijn wijsgerig systeem wordt hier volledig ontwikkeld. Wij hebben derhalve niet te maken met een ethiek in de hedendaagse zin van het woord. Spinoza zoekt een geheel nieuwe levensrichting die een algehele breuk inhoudt met wereldbeeld en Godsbegrip van de Middeleeuwen. Spinoza biedt zijn denken aan "in meetkundige trant uiteengezet". In de 17e eeuw was dit een zeer gebruikelijke vorm voor het opzetten van betogen. De aangeboden vertaling stamt van 1915. T. b. v. een eerdere uitgave van 1974 is de taal gemoderniseerd en zijn ook in de vertaling zelf wijzigingen aangebracht waardoor vooral de idealistisch-mystieke interpretatie van de vertaler werd afgezwakt. Een nieuwe wetenschappelijk-kritische vertaling blijft zeer wenselijk. Zolang deze niet voorhanden is, zal ieder die Spinoza grondig wil leren kennen op deze uitgave zijn aangewezen.